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Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society (BKCS)

ISSN 0253-2964(Print)
ISSN 1229-5949(Online)
Volume 21, Number 9
BKCSDE 21(9)
September 20, 2000 

 
Title
New Azobenzene Crown p-tert-Butylcalix[4]arenes as Switchable Receptors for Na+ and K+ ions: Synthesis and Isomerization Studies
Author
Bongkot Pipoosananakaton, Mongkol Sukwattanasinitt, Nongnuj Jaiboon, Narongsak Chaichit,Thawatchai Tuntulani*
Keywords
Abstract
Two new azobenzene crown ether calix[4]arenes, 10 and 11, were synthesized by two pathways. In the first pathway,two ethoxy nitrobenzene groups were attached to t-butylcalix[4]arenes in a 1,3 position. Subsequent reduction ofthe nitrobenzene groups by metallic zinc in an alkaline solution afforded 10 and 11 in8% and 12%,respectively. In the second pathway,an azobenzene containing two glycolic units was prepared prior connect-ing to t-butylcalix[4]arenes. The yields from the second approach (5%, 8% for 10 and 11, respectively) were lower than those from the former approach. Single crystals of 10 suitable for X-ray crystallography was ob-tained by recrystallization in methanol.Both the X-ray structure and the 1H-NMR spectrum of 10 indicated that the stereoisomer of the azobenzene moiety was trans and the calixarene platform was in cone conformation. 1H NMR spectroscopy suggested that 10 underwent an observable cis-trans isomerization in CDCl3 under room light and upon UV irradiation with cis:trans ratios of 33:67 and 36:64,respectively. Compound 6 which was the precursor of 11showed fluxional behavior and was found to have mixed conformations ofcone and partial cone with a ratio of 47:53 at -30 ℃. 1H NMR spectrum of 11 suggested that 11 was initially isolated as cis azobenzene with calix[4]arene in cone conformation and underwent conformational interconversion through calix[4]arene annulas in a similar fashion to 6 upon exposing to light. The complexation studies of 10 with picrate salts of Na+ and K+ using 1H NMR spectroscopysuggested that Na+ preferred to bind the cis form of 10 while K+ preferred to bind the trans form. The stereoisomer of the azobenzene unit in 11 changed partially from cis to trans upon complexing with K+.
Page
867 - 874
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