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Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society (BKCS)

ISSN 0253-2964(Print)
ISSN 1229-5949(Online)
Volume 22, Number 5
BKCSDE 22(5)
May 20, 2001 

Protection of Metal Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Cadmium Tolerance Requires the Presence of Two ATP-Binding Domains of Hsp104 Protein
Kyunghee Lee, Junghoon Ueom
Cadmium stress, Oxidative stress, ATP binding sites.
We have explored the importance of two ATP binding domains of Hsp104 protein in protection of yeast cells from cadmium exposure. In the previous study we have discovered that the presence of two ATP binding sites was essential in providing heat shock protection as well as rescuing cells from oxidative stress. In this paper we first report wild type cell with functional hsp104 gene is more resistant to cadmium stress than hsp104-deleted mutant cell, judging from decrease in survival rates as a result of cadmium exposure. In order to demonstrate functional role of two ATP binding sites in cadmium defense, we have transformed both wild type (SP1) and hyperactivated ras mutant (IR2.5) strains with several plasmids differing in the presence of ATP binding sites. When an extra copy of functional hsp104 gene with both ATP binding sites was overexpressed with GPD-promoter, cells showed increased survival rate against cadmium stress than mutants with ATP binding sites changed. The degree of protection in the presence of two ATP binding sites was similarly observed in ira2-deleted hyperactivated ras mutant, which was more sensitive to oxidative stress than wild type cell. We have concluded that the greater sensitivity to cadmium stress in the absence of two ATP binding sites is attributed to the higher concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by cadmium exposure based on the fluorescence tests. These findings, taken all together, imply that the mechanism by which cadmium put forth toxic effects may be closely associated with the oxidative stress, which is regulated independently of the Ras-cAMP pathway. Our study provides a better understanding of cadmium defense itself and cross-talks between oxidative stress and metal stress, which can be applied to control human diseases due to similar toxic environments.
514 - 518
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