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Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society (BKCS)

ISSN 0253-2964(Print)
ISSN 1229-5949(Online)
Volume 35, Number 7
BKCSDE 35(7)
July 20, 2014 

Kinetic Study on Aminolysis of Phenyl 2-Pyridyl Carbonate in Acetonitrile: Effect of Intramolecular H-bonding Interaction on Reactivity and Reaction Mechanism
Ji-Hyun Song, Jae-In Lee, Ik-Hwan Um*
Aminolysis, Steric hindrance, Inductive effect, Resonance contribution, H-bonding interaction
Second-order rate constants (kN) have been measured spectrophotometrically for the reactions of phenyl 2- pyridyl carbonate (6) with a series of cyclic secondary amines in MeCN at 25.0 ± 0.1 oC. The Brønsted-type plot for the reaction of 6 is linear with βnuc = 0.54, which is typical for reactions reported previously to proceed through a concerted mechanism. Substrate 6 is over 103 times more reactive than 2-pyridyl benzoate (5), although the reactions of 6 and 5 proceed through the same mechanism. A combination of steric hindrance, inductive effect and resonance contribution is responsible for the kinetic results. The reactions of 6 and 5 proceed through a cyclic transition state (TS) in which H-bonding interactions increase the nucleofugality of the leaving group (i.e., 2-pyridiniumoxide). The enhanced nucleofugality forces the reactions of 6 and 5 to proceed through a concerted mechanism. In contrast, the corresponding reaction of 4-nitrophenyl 2-pyridyl carbonate (7) proceeds through a stepwise mechanism with quantitative liberation of 4-nitrophenoxide ion as the leaving group, indicating that replacement of the 4-nitrophenoxy group in 7 by the PhO group in 6 changes the reaction mechanism (i.e., from a stepwise mechanism to a concerted pathway) as well as the leaving group (i.e., from 4-nitrophenoxide to 2-pyridiniumoxide). The strong electron-withdrawing ability of the 4- nitrophenoxy group in 7 inhibits formation of a H-bonded cyclic TS. The presence or absence of a H-bonded cyclic TS governs the reaction mechanism (i.e., a concerted or stepwise mechanism) as well as the leaving group (i.e., 2-pyridiniumoxide or 4-nitrophenoxide).
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