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Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society (BKCS)

ISSN 0253-2964(Print)
ISSN 1229-5949(Online)
Volume 16, Number 5
BKCSDE 16(5)
May 20, 1995 

Reaction of Lithium Gallium Hydride with Selected Organic Compounds Containing Representative Functional Groups
Jung Hoon Choi*, Moon Young Yoon, Jong Hun Yun, Dong Won Chung
The approximate rates and stoichiometry of the reaction of excess lithium gallium hydride with selected organic compounds containing representative functional groups were examined under the standard conditions (diethyl ether, 0 ℃ ) in order to compare its reducing characteristics with lithium aluminum hydride and lithium borohydride previously reported, and enlarge the scope of its applicability as a reducing agent. Alcohols, phenol, and amines evolve hydrogen rapidly and quantitatively. However lithium gallium hydride reacts with only one active hydrogen of primary amine. Aldehydes and ketones of diverse structure are rapidly reduced to the corresponding alcohols. Conjugated aldehyde and ketone such as cinnamaldehyde and methyl vinyl ketone are rapidly reduced to the corresponding saturated alcohols. p-Benzoquinone is mainly reduces to hydroquinone. Caproic acid and benzoic acid liberate hydrogen rapidly and quantitatively, but reduction proceeds slowly. The acid chlorides and esters tested are all rapidly reduced to the corresponding alcohols. Alkyl halides and epoxides are reduced rapidly with an uptake of 1 equiv of hydride. Styrene oxide is reduced to give 1-phenylethanol quantitatively. Primary amides are reduced slowly. Benzonitrile consumes 2.0 equiv of hydride rapidly, whereas capronitrile is reduced slowly. Nitro compounds consumed 2.9 equiv of hydride, of which 1.9 equiv is for reduction, whereas azobenzene, and azoxybenzene are inert toward this reagent. Cyclohexanone oxime is reduced consuming 2.0 equiv of hydride for reduction at a moderate rate. Pyridine is inert toward this reagent. Disulfides and sulfoxides are reduced slowly, whereas sulfide, sulfone, and sulfonate are inert under these reaction conditions. Sulfonic acid evolves 1 equiv of hydrogen instantly, but reduction is not proceeded.
416 - 421
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